Annex B - Research Data

Theories for the Mpemba effect have included: 
  • faster evaporation of hot , which reduces the volume left to freeze

  • formation of a frost layer on cold water, insulating it

  • different concentrations of solutes such as , which is driven off when the water is heated
The problem is that the effect does not always appear, and cold water often freezes faster than hot water.






hot water freezes faster than cold water
hot water with sugar, freezes faster than cold water with sugar
hot water with salt, freezes faster than cold water with salt

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